CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS SUPPLEMENTARY PROGRAM

STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS

Symmetry theory. Point groups. Irreducible representation of point groups and classification of terms. Character tables. Selection rules. Representation examples.

Relationship between symmetry of crystal structure, point symmetry and symmetry of physical properties of crystals.

Types of bonding force, their peculiarities. Crystal lattice energy, Structural types. Unit cell, coordination number, coordination spheres. Closest packing.

Crystal structure of solids. Typical structures of metal and semiconductor phases. Structure of electron coupling of Laves and interstitial phases.

Wave diffraction in crystals and basic methods of investigation of crystal structures, their principles, potentialities and specifics. Methods of Xray structural analysis. Electronography. Neutron diffractometry, determination of magnetic structures. Experimental application of synchrotron radiation.

Elastic properties of crystals. Stress tensor. Deformation tensor. Generalized Hooke law. Crystal elastic constants. Effect of crystal symmetry on elastic properties.

Optical properties of crystals and point symmetry. Classification of crystals by their optical properties.


KINETIC, OPTICAL, MAGNETIC AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

Electrons in metal. Freeelectron model. Reflection from Brillouin zone boundaries. Metal Fermi surface. Residual resistance. Magnetoresistance and Hall effect.

Semiconductors. Semiconductor electron spectrum. Intrinsic conductivity. Defect levels and zones.

Electrons in disordered structures. Physical properties of amorphous metals.

Metaldielectric junction. Minimum conduction in metals. Electrostriction and piesoelectricity. Piesoelectrics and ferrielectrics.

Crystal optics. Refractive index and polarizability. Double refraction in crystals.

Absorption spectra and crystal luminescence. Photoconductivity. Optical properties of defect crystals.

Nonlinear optical phenomena: stimulated Raman scattering, harmonic generation, selffocusing.

WannierMott excitons (hydrogenlike excitons in two and threedimensional semiconductor systems).

Electronhole liquid in semiconductors. Phase diagram: exciton gas electronhole liquid. Experimental investigation of electronhole liquid.

Langevin paramagnetism. Orbitalmoment quenching in crystal field. Paramagnetism of iron group and rareearth group ions. Spinorbital interaction. Anisotropy of paramagnetic ion gfactors in solids. Nuclear paramagnetism.

Nontransition metals. Pauli paramagnetism. Landau diamagnetism. Haas Van Allen effect.

Ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism. Thermodynamic theory. Behavior near Curie point. Magnetic symmetry. Exchange interaction. Magnetic anisotropy energy, magnetostriction. Magnet energy spectrum. Spin waves. Domains and domain boundaries. Technical magnetization curve theory.

Tensor of elastic constants and elastic deformation. Crystal plasticity. Yield point. Hardening. Internal friction.


PHYSICS OF TWODIMENSIONAL ELECTRON SYSTEMS

Dimensional quantization in quasitwodimensional systems. Subzones. Screening. Quasitwodimensional electron scattering.

Examples of quasitwodimensional systems in semiconductors: heterostructures, MIS structures.

Quasitwodimensional systems in quantized magnetic field. Conductivity and resistance tensors. State density.

Integer quantum Hall effect. Experimental aspects and metrological evaluation. Role of defects and localization. Buttiker representation.

Fractional quantum Hall effect. Experimental studies. Incompressible quantum liquid. Hierarchy of fractions.


SURFACE PHYSICS. STRUCTURE. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES

Tamm levels. Charge filling of surface states, surface barrier.

Physical and chemical absorption. Surface phase transitions. Formation of Schottky barrier and methods of its investigation.

Lowenergy electron diffraction (LEED). LEED physical basis. Principles of calculation of ideal surface LEED intensity using dynamic theory. Methodological potentialities of LEED for investigation of solid state surface.

Molecule beam scattering on solid state surface. Scattering kinematics. Atomsurface interaction potential. Molecule beam diffraction. Inelastic molecule beam scattering: investigation of phonon surface and absorbed layer vibrations.

Different theoretical approaches for description of electron tunneling (quasiclassical approximation, tunneling Hamiltonian, etc.). Methods of investigation of solids based on tunneling effect (ion microscope, scanning tunneling microscope, elastic and inelastic tunneling microscopy).

Ellipsometry as surface investigation technique.

Interaction of conduction electrons with metal surface.

Investigation techniques. Auger spectroscopy.


PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN SOLIDS

Thermodynamical conditions of phase equilibrium states in single and multicomponent systems. Phase rule. State functions. Chemical potentials. Type I and II phase transitions.

Types of phases in solids. Chemical compounds. Interstitial and substitutional solid solutions. Intermediate phases. Ordered solid solutions. HumeRothery phases, Laves phases. Interstitial phases.

Phase diagrams. Types of phase diagrams. State diagrams, basic and structural composition of solids.

Kinetics of phase transitions in solids. Stable and nonstable phases. Phase transformations involving changes in phase composition. Phase transitions without changes in phase composition. Cooperative and noncooperative phase transitions. Specifics of kinetic mechanism of cooperative phase transitions in solids.

Relation between phase composition, microstructure and physical properties of solids. Principal methods of investigation phase transitions in solids.


SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

Diversity of superconducting materials: crystal and amorphous metals, degenerate semiconductors, compound metal oxides. Experimental data on high temperature superconductivity.

GinzburgLandau equation. Coherence length and penetration depth, their temperature dependence.

Thermodynamics of superconductors. Types I and II superconductors. Abrikosov vortices. Critical fields Hc1, Hc2, Hc3. Vortex pinning.

Electronphonon interaction as principal mechanism of superconductivity. BardeenCooperSchrieffer theory (BCS theory). Strong and weak coupling. Nonphonon superconducting mechanisms (plasmons, excitons, spin excitations, bipolarons, etc.).

Properties of tunneling contact of normal metal and those of superconductor and two superconductors. Andreev reflection. Josephson effect. SQUID and its application.


CRYSTAL DEFECTS. PHYSICS OF DISLOCATIONS

Point defects. Vacancies. Interstitial atoms. Their formation and motion. Point defect reactions, electron properties of point defects. Combinations of atomic defects.

Dislocations. Dislocation energy. Dislocation climb and dislocation glide.

Plastic deformation caused by dislocation motion. Multiplication of dislocations, dislocation sources. Dislocation mobility. Motion mechanisms.

Dislocation geometry. Elastic dislocation fields. Atomic structure of dislocation cores. Partial dislocations and stacking faults.

Experimental methods of dislocation investigation.

Effect of dislocations on physical (electrical, optical, thermal) properties of crystals.


EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF SOLID STATE PHYSICS
Xray diffraction: methods of investigation of ideal and real structure. Electron diffraction analysis: elastic and inelastic coherent scattering, investigation of magnetic structure and phonon spectra. Mössbauer effect. Electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR. Nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. Electrical and galvanomagnetic measurements as methods of investigation of crystal electron structure and impurity composition in semiconductors. Optical methods, potentialities of application of laser sources.