RUS
24.11.2017  
  


CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS SUPPLEMENTARY PROGRAM

  1. STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS

    1. Symmetry theory. Point groups. Irreducible representation of point groups and classification of terms. Character tables. Selection rules. Representation examples.

    2. Relationship between symmetry of crystal structure, point symmetry and symmetry of physical properties of crystals.

    3. Types of bonding force, their peculiarities. Crystal lattice energy, Structural types. Unit cell, coordination number, coordination spheres. Closest packing.

    4. Crystal structure of solids. Typical structures of metal and semiconductor phases. Structure of electron coupling of Laves and interstitial phases.

    5. Wave diffraction in crystals and basic methods of investigation of crystal structures, their principles, potentialities and specifics. Methods of X-ray structural analysis. Electronography. Neutron diffractometry, determination of magnetic structures. Experimental application of synchrotron radiation.

    6. Elastic properties of crystals. Stress tensor. Deformation tensor. Generalized Hooke law. Crystal elastic constants. Effect of crystal symmetry on elastic properties.

    7. Optical properties of crystals and point symmetry. Classification of crystals by their optical properties.

  2. KINETIC, OPTICAL, MAGNETIC AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

    1. Electrons in metal. Free-electron model. Reflection from Brillouin zone boundaries. Metal Fermi surface. Residual resistance. Magnetoresistance and Hall effect.

    2. Semiconductors. Semiconductor electron spectrum. Intrinsic conductivity. Defect levels and zones.

    3. Electrons in disordered structures. Physical properties of amorphous metals.

    4. Metal-dielectric junction. Minimum conduction in metals. Electrostriction and piesoelectricity. Piesoelectrics and ferrielectrics.

    5. Crystal optics. Refractive index and polarizability. Double refraction in crystals.

    6. Absorption spectra and crystal luminescence. Photoconductivity. Optical properties of defect crystals.

    7. Nonlinear optical phenomena: stimulated Raman scattering, harmonic generation, self-focusing.

    8. Wannier-Mott excitons (hydrogen-like excitons in two- and three-dimensional semiconductor systems).

    9. Electron-hole liquid in semiconductors. Phase diagram: exciton gas- electron-hole liquid. Experimental investigation of electron-hole liquid.

    10. Langevin paramagnetism. Orbital-moment quenching in crystal field. Paramagnetism of iron group and rare-earth group ions. Spin-orbital interaction. Anisotropy of paramagnetic ion g-factors in solids. Nuclear paramagnetism.

    11. Nontransition metals. Pauli paramagnetism. Landau diamagnetism. Haas- Van Allen effect.

    12. Ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism. Thermodynamic theory. Behavior near Curie point. Magnetic symmetry. Exchange interaction. Magnetic anisotropy energy, magnetostriction. Magnet energy spectrum. Spin waves. Domains and domain boundaries. Technical magnetization curve theory.

    13. Tensor of elastic constants and elastic deformation. Crystal plasticity. Yield point. Hardening. Internal friction.

  3. PHYSICS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON SYSTEMS

    1. Dimensional quantization in quasi-two-dimensional systems.  Subzones. Screening. Quasi-two-dimensional electron scattering.

    2. Examples of quasi-two-dimensional systems in semiconductors: heterostructures, MIS structures.

    3. Quasi-two-dimensional systems in quantized magnetic field. Conductivity and resistance tensors. State density.

    4. Integer quantum Hall effect. Experimental aspects and metrological evaluation. Role of defects and localization. Buttiker representation.

    5. Fractional quantum Hall effect. Experimental studies. Incompressible quantum liquid. Hierarchy of fractions.

  4. SURFACE PHYSICS. STRUCTURE. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES

    1. Tamm levels. Charge filling of surface states, surface barrier.

    2. Physical and chemical absorption. Surface phase transitions. Formation of Schottky barrier and methods of its investigation.

    3. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). LEED physical basis. Principles of calculation of ideal surface LEED intensity using dynamic theory. Methodological potentialities of LEED for investigation of solid state surface.

    4. Molecule beam scattering on solid state surface. Scattering kinematics. Atom-surface interaction potential. Molecule beam diffraction. Inelastic molecule beam scattering: investigation of phonon surface and absorbed layer vibrations.

    5. Different theoretical approaches for description of electron tunneling (quasi-classical approximation, tunneling Hamiltonian, etc.). Methods of investigation of solids based on tunneling effect (ion microscope, scanning tunneling microscope, elastic and inelastic tunneling microscopy).

    6. Ellipsometry as surface investigation technique.

    7. Interaction of conduction electrons with metal surface.

    8. Investigation techniques. Auger spectroscopy.

  5. PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN SOLIDS

    1. Thermodynamical conditions of phase equilibrium states in single- and multi-component systems. Phase rule. State functions. Chemical potentials. Type I and II phase transitions.

    2. Types of phases in solids. Chemical compounds. Interstitial and substitutional solid solutions. Intermediate phases. Ordered solid solutions. Hume-Rothery phases, Laves phases. Interstitial phases.

    3. Phase diagrams. Types of phase diagrams. State diagrams, basic and structural composition of solids.

    4. Kinetics of phase transitions in solids. Stable and non-stable phases. Phase transformations involving changes in phase composition. Phase transitions without changes in phase composition. Cooperative and non-cooperative phase transitions. Specifics of kinetic mechanism of cooperative phase transitions in solids.

    5. Relation between phase composition, microstructure and physical properties of solids. Principal methods of investigation phase transitions in solids.

  6. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

    1. Diversity of superconducting materials: crystal and amorphous metals, degenerate semiconductors, compound metal oxides. Experimental data on high temperature superconductivity.

    2. Ginzburg-Landau equation. Coherence length and penetration depth, their temperature dependence.

    3. Thermodynamics of superconductors. Types I and II superconductors. Abrikosov vortices. Critical fields Hc1, Hc2, Hc3. Vortex pinning.

    4. Electron-phonon interaction as principal mechanism of superconductivity. Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory (BCS theory). Strong and weak coupling. Non-phonon superconducting mechanisms (plasmons, excitons, spin excitations, bipolarons, etc.).

    5. Properties of tunneling contact of normal metal and those of superconductor and two superconductors. Andreev reflection.  Josephson effect. SQUID and its application.

  7. CRYSTAL DEFECTS. PHYSICS OF DISLOCATIONS

    1. Point defects. Vacancies. Interstitial atoms. Their formation and motion. Point defect reactions, electron properties of point defects. Combinations of atomic defects.

    2. Dislocations. Dislocation energy. Dislocation climb and dislocation glide.

    3. Plastic deformation caused by dislocation motion. Multiplication of dislocations, dislocation sources. Dislocation mobility. Motion mechanisms.

    4. Dislocation geometry. Elastic dislocation fields. Atomic structure of dislocation cores. Partial dislocations and stacking faults.

    5. Experimental methods of dislocation investigation.

    6. Effect of dislocations on physical (electrical, optical, thermal) properties of crystals.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF SOLID STATE PHYSICS

  9. X-ray diffraction: methods of investigation of ideal and real structure. Electron diffraction analysis: elastic and inelastic coherent scattering, investigation of magnetic structure and phonon spectra. Mössbauer effect. Electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR. Nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. Electrical and galvanomagnetic measurements as methods of investigation of crystal electron structure and impurity composition in semiconductors. Optical methods, potentialities of application of laser sources.

 

Contact information

Tel.: 8(496)52 219-82
+7 906 095 4402

Fax: +7(496) 522 8160
8(496) 522 8160

Address: Institute of Solid State Physics RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow District, 2 Academician Ossipyan str., 142432 Russia

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WWW: www.issp.ac.ru


  
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