Approved by Scientific Council of Institute of Solid State Physics,
Russian Academy of Sciences
28 February, 2005

Prof. V.V.Kveder

Proceedings No.4  



  1. Bonding Forces in Solids
  2. Atomic electron structure. Chemical bond and valence. Types of bonding force in condensed matter: Van der Waals bond, ionic bond, covalent bond, metallic bond.
    Chemical bond and short-range order. Structure of matter with unidirectional interaction. Samples of close packed arrangement crystal structures: BCC, FCC. HCP, CsCl–, NaCl-types , CaTiO3 perovskite -type structure.

    Main properties of covalent bond. Covalent bond structure of matter. Selenium-type structure. Hybridization of atomic orbits in molecules and crystals. Diamond- and graphite-type structure.

  3. Structure of Metals and Alloys
  4. Electron structure and physical properties of metals. Fermi surface and Brillouin zones.

    Substitutional, interstitial and subtractional solid solutions. Structure of electron coupling of Laves and interstitial phases. Deviations from Vegard law.

    Phase rule. Diagrams of binary and triple systems with continuous series of solid solutions, with eutectic, peritectic and monotectic equilibrium, with congruent and incongruent melting intermediate phases, with component polymorphism. Thermodynamic analysis of state diagrams. Equilibrium error in crystallization of alloys in different type systems.

  5. Crystal Structure and Crystal Defects
  6. Main types of crystal lattice. Unit cells. Direction and plane indices in crystal lattice. Anisotropy of crystal properties. Typical crystal lattices of metals. Crystallographic planes and directions with highest atom packing density in cubic and hexagonal lattices.

    Types of crystal defects. Point defects. Dislocations. Stacking faults. Burgers vector. Dislocation density. Dislocation climb and dislocation glide. Generation and multiplication of dislocations, Frank-Read source. Peierls-Nabarro force. Dislocation and dislocation-impurity interaction. Dislocation networks and low angle boundaries. High angle boundaries. Twins. Crystallography and deformation twinning mechanisms.

  7. Phase and Structural Transitions in Solid Metals and Alloys
  8. Mechanisms of atom migration. Fick laws. Diffusion coefficient. Structure-sensitive diffusion processes. Diffusion in external force fields. Classification of phase and structural transformations. Type I and II phase transformations. Homogeneous and heterogeneous generation mechanisms. Recovery and recrystallization. Primary collective and secondary recrystallization. Dynamic recrystallization. Recrystallization textures.

    Crystallization from melt, homogeneous and heterogeneous generation of crystals.

    Structure and mechanism of interface motion. Shift (diffusionless) and normal (diffusion) transformation. Thermodynamic and crystallographic analysis of shift (martensite) transformation. Mechanism and kinetics of shift and normal transformation. Eutectoidal transformation. Mechanism and kinetics of eutectoidal transformation. Phase transition diagrams (thermokinetical, isothermal, etc.).

    Solid solution ordering. Long- and short-range order. Transformation change of alloy properties. Metastable phase formation and decomposition. Decomposition of supersaturated solid solution. Spinodal decomposition. Continuous and interrupted decomposition.

  9. Heat Treatment
  10. Types of heat treatment.

    Homogeneous annealing. Related changes of structure and properties of alloys.

    Pre-recrystallization and recrystallization annealing. Rest. Polygonization. Primary, collective and secondary recrystallization. Mechanism and kinetics of rest, types of polygonization and recrystallization, effect of previous plastic deformation, impurities, temperature and time of annealing. Changes of mechanical and physical properties related to post-cold deformation annealing. Texture of deformation, primary, collective and secondary recrystallization, its mechanism. Anisotropy of properties of textured metals.

    Heat-induced phase transitions. Structural heredity. Hardening without polymorphic transformation. Hardening-related changes of structure and properties. Hardening with polymorphic transformation. Martensite micro- and sub-structure. Hardening and plasticity change caused by martensite quenching. Critical cooling rate in quenching, hardenability.

    Aging. Aging-related hardening. Effect of temperature and aging time on mechanical and physical properties of alloys. Over-aging, stepwise aging. Effect of heating-for- hardening temperature and cooling rate on structure and properties of aged alloys. Temper. Temper-related change of microstructure, substructure and phase composition.

    Reversible and irreversible temper brittleness.

  11. Physical Properties of Metals
  12. Classification of physical properties by their structural sensitivity.

    Density of metals, metal phases, heterogeneous alloys. Methods of density determination. Change of metal density caused by deformation, allotropic transformations, melting, etc. Compressibility of metals.

    Thermal expansion of metals and alloys. Methods of determination of thermal expansion and transformation bulk effect (dilatometry). Dilatometric studies of transformations in alloys. Alloys with desired expansion factor (invar, cover, platinite, etc.).

    Specific heat capacity. Atomic specific heat, its temperature dependence. Specific heat capacity of simple and transition metals. Specific heat capacity of electron gas. Characteristic temperature. Neimann and Calll rule for metal phases and heterogeneous alloys. Application of methods of calorimetric and thermal analysis in metal science.

    Thermal properties. Thermal analysis and its application. Thermal expansion. Dilatometric studies of phase transformations.

    Elastic properties. Inelasticity. Internal friction mechanism. Application of internal friction method.

    Techniques of measuring electric properties. Physical nature of electriс conduction of metals. Temperature and pressure dependence of electrical resistance of pure metals. Influence of defects on electrical resistance of metals. Electrical resistance of ordered and disordered solid solutions. Concentration dependence of electrical resistance of solid solutions (Mattissen-Fleming rule). Inhomogeneous solid solutions (K-state). Electrical properties of chemical compounds and intermediate phases. Electrical properties of heterogeneous alloys.

    Application of electrical analysis for phase equilibrium plotting, for study of hardening, steel temper, overcooled austenite decomposition, ordering. Principles of forming alloys for conductors and resistance elements.Technical materials with specific electrical properties.

    Types of magnetism, their specific features. Dia- and paramagnetic metals, their position in the periodic table. Curie-Weiss law. Methods of measuring para- and diamagnetic susceptibility. Para- and diamagnetic properties of metal phases and heterogeneous alloys. Magnetic properties of ferromagnets. Magnetization curve and magnetic hysteresis cycle. Demagnetization factor. Methods of measuring ferromagnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetization. Nature of exchange interaction. Conditions for ferro- and anti-ferromagnetism.

    Magnetic properties of solid solutions, metal phases and heterogeneous alloys. Application of magnetic analysis for study of phase equilibrium diagrams, structural transformations caused by hardening and temper, for investigation of ordering processes, etc. Requirements for phase state and microstructure of soft-magnetic and hard-magnetic alloys.

    Application of magnetic and electrical methods for investigation of phase equilibrium states, microstructural changes and transformations of alloys.

  13. Elastic and Plastic Deformation. Failure
  14. Elastic and plastic deformation. Coefficient of elasticity and modulus of elasticity. Methods of determination of elastic constants. Slip systems in cubic and hexagonal metals. Deformation diagrams of single crystals and polycrystals.

    Mechanisms of plastic deformation. Deformation hardening theory. Hardening in solid solutions. Second phase hardening.  Influence of grain and subgrain boundaries on polycrystal hardening. Dependence of mechanical properties on composition in double systems.

    Dependence of mechanical properties on grain size. Superplasticity. Inelasticity. Brittle and viscous failure. Crack nucleation schemes. Crack propagation upon brittle and viscous failure. Nature of cold brittleness. Transition temperature (cold brittleness threshold). Fracture structure.

    Creep. Creep mechanisms and stages. Stress relaxation. Short-term and long-term strength. Dependence of creep on composition and structure of alloys.

    Fatigue strength. Fatigue diagrams. Fatigue mechanisms. Factors affecting fatigue strength. Contact fatigue. Wear.

    Failure. Mechanisms of brittle and viscous failure and fracture structure. Transition from viscous to brittle failure. Cold brittleness. Standard methods of mechanical tests. Tension and compression tests. True deformation diagrams. Bending and torsional tests, application fields. Hardness characteristics.

    Impact strength. Characteristics of failure plasticity and fracture toughness. Structural flexibility.

  15. Methods of Investigation and Control of Structure and Properties of Metals
  16. Techniques of microstructure investigation. Light microscopy. Methods of quantitative metallography.

    Electron, atom, crystal X-ray scattering. Structure amplitude. Main X-ray diffraction equations. Reciprocal lattice and Ewald sphere. Main techniques of X-ray structural analysis: Laue method, rotation method, powder method, their application and information potentialities. Expression for integral X-ray reflection intensity (kinematic theory).

    State diagram analysis using X-ray structural method. Structural analysis of ordering. Study of decomposition of supersaturated  solid solutions. Analysis of crystal structure defects by X-ray reflection intensity (width) distribution.

    Optical scheme of transmission electron microscope (TEM). Imaging. TEM investigation techniques. Kinematic theory of diffraction contrast. Contrast in imaging of crystal structure defects (dislocations, stacking faults, grain boundaries, inclusions). Dynamic scattering effects.

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray micrography spectral analysis. Methods of measuring physical properties (thermal analysis, calorimetry, dilatometry, density measurement, resistance measurement, magnetic analysis, etc.). determination of corrosion properties.

    Mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Measurement techniques. Statistic and dynamic tests. Creep, long-term strength and stress relaxation tests. Fatigue tests.