Section I

1. Phases and Phase Equilibrium

Typical crystal lattices of metals. Crystallographic planes and directions with highest atom packing density in cubic and hexagonal lattices.

Substitutional, interstitial and subtractional solid solutions.Electron coupling, Laves and interstitial phases. Deviations from Vegard law.

Phase rule. Diagrams of binary systems. Lever rule. Iron-carbon state diagram.

Triple system state diagrams, polythermal and isothermal cuts.

2. Crystal Structure Defects

Classification of defects. Vacancies, vacancy mobility and self-diffusion. Dislocations, their interaction, cross sliding and gliding.

Stacking faults. Impurity segregation on dislocations and stacking faults. Structure of boundaries, grains  and subgrains. Coincidence site lattice. Grain migration, influence of impurities and inclusions.

3. Phase and Structural Transitions in Solid Metals and Alloys

Recovery and recrystallization. Primary collective and secondary recrystallization. Dynamic recrystallization. Recrystallization textures.

Crystallization from melt, homogeneous and heterogeneous generation of crystals.

Tamman curves. Macro- and microstructure of cast metal. Modification.

Segregation. Eutectic crystallization, eutectic structure. Diffusionless crystallization.

Nucleation upon phase transformation in solid state, mutual phase orientation, structural and dimensional conformity principle. Structure and mechanism of interface motion upon solid sate crystal growth, shift and normal transformation. Martensite transformation.

Type I and II phase transitions. Ordering.

Heat-induced phase transitions, phase II particle dissolution, homogenization. Specifics of quick heating transformation.

4. Physical Properties of Metals

Classification of physical properties by their structural sensitivity.

Thermal properties. Thermal analysis and its application. Thermal expansion. Dilatometric studies of phase transformations.

Elastic properties. Inelasticity. Internal friction mechanism. Application of internal friction method.

Magnetic and electrical properties. Application of magnetic and electrical methods for investigation of phase equilibrium states, microstructural changes and transformations of alloys.

5. Mechanical  Properties of Metals

Elastic and plastic deformation. Coefficient of elasticity and modulus of elasticity. Methods of determination of elastic constants. Slip systems in cubic and hexagonal metals. Deformation diagrams of single crystals and polycrystals.

Mechanisms of plastic deformation. Deformation hardening theory. Hardening in solid solutions. Second phase hardening.  Influence of grain and subgrain boundaries on polycrystal hardening. Dependence of mechanical properties on composition in double systems.

Failure. Mechanisms of brittle and viscous failure and fracture structure. Transition from viscous to brittle failure. Cold brittleness. Standard methods of mechanical tests. Tension and compression tests. True deformation diagrams. Bending and torsional tests, application fields. Hardness characteristics.

Impact strength. Characteristics of failure plasticity and fracture toughness. Structural flexibility.

Heat resistance. Creep test and stress relaxation. Deformation mechanisms and creep failure. Long-term strength. Requirements to structure of heat resistance alloys. Fatigue, structural mechanisms. Medium-related failure.

6. Basics of Heat Treatment

Types of heat treatment.Homogeneous annealing. Pre-recrystallization and recrystallization annealing. Annealing for reduction of residual stress. Hardening, structure and rest. Thermomechanical treatment. Chemicothermal treatment. Nature  and purpose of each type of heat treatment. Related changes of structure and properties.

7. Methods of Investigation of Microstructure and Phase State

Light and  scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Methods of local chemical analysis.

X-ray structural and electron-graphic phase analysis.

Section II

1. Crystallography

Continuum symmetry. Symmetry element interaction. Point groups. General and specific position multiplicity. Diffraction symmetry groups. Systems of translation Bravais lattices.

Discontinuum symmetry. Space groups. Notion of right system of points. Closest packings, their description. Coordination numbers and radii. Voids (pores).
Coordination polyhedrons.

Basic structural types and their description.

Crystallographic analysis: crystal structural bonds and physical properties of crystals.

2. Methods of X-Ray Structural Analysis, Neutron Diffraction Analysis, Electron Diffraction Analysis and Electron Microscopy

X-ray scattering  by electron, atom, crystal. Structure amplitude. Main X-ray diffraction equations. Reciprocal lattice and Ewald sphere.

Main techniques of X-ray structural analysis: Laue method, rotation method, powder method, their application and information potentialities. Expression for integral X-ray reflection intensity (kinematic theory).

Choice of radiation and type of survey, calculation and indication of X-ray patterns, determination of lattice spacing.

X-ray diffractometry.

Quantitative and qualitative X-ray phase analysis.

State diagram analysis using  X-ray structural technique. Ordering analysis by structural methods. Studies of supersaturated solid solution decomposition.

Analysis of crystal structure defects by distribution of X-ray reflection intensity.

Electron and neutron-matter interaction, fields of application of electron diffraction analysis and neutron diffraction analysis.

Optical scheme of transmission electron microscope (TEM). Imaging. TEM investigation techniques.

Kinematic theory of diffraction contrast. Contrast in imaging of crystal structure defects (dislocations, stacking faults, grain boundaries, inclusions). Dynamic scattering effects.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray micrography spectral analysis.

3. Phases of Metal Systems and Phase Transitions

Crystal structure of metals. Polymorphism of metals.

Metal-based solid solutions, their atomic structure. Short-range order in solid solutions and its parameters. Ordering theory.

Metal compounds, their classification. Electron coupling (Hume-Rothery phases). Laves phases, phase sigma, Cr3Si- and NiAs-type phases, interstitial phases. Phase formation, their electron and atomic structure and technical application.

Diffusion in metals, diffusion theory and diffusion atomic mechanisms. Effect of microstructure. Reactive diffusion.

Crystallization behavior of metals and alloys. Mechanisms of nucleation and growth of crystals during solution solidification and vapor condensation. Crystal growth morphology.

Ultrarapid cooling and amorphous solidification of metal alloys.

General regularities of allotropic and martensite transformations in metals and alloys. Behavior of atomic-crystalline structure upon allotropic transformations.

Thermodynamics of massive transformations in alloys. Crystallographic theory of martensite transformations. Specifics of martensite transformations in iron- and titanium-based alloys.

Homogeneous and heterogeneous, one- and two- phase decomposition of supersaturated solid solutions. Zone decomposition. Age-related behavior of alloys.
Spinoidal decomposition.

Role of dislocations, stacking faults and grain boundaries in precipitate processes.

Effect of plastic deformation on age-related decomposition of supersaturated solid solutions.

Structural changes induced by martensite tempering of carbon steel. Amorphous and microcrystalline alloys.

4. Heat Capacity and Heat Content

Specific heat capacity. Atomic heat capacity its temperature dependence. Heat capacity of simple and transition metals. Heat capacity of electron gas. Characteristic temperature. Neimann and Calll rule for metal phases and heterogeneous alloys. Application of methods of calorimetric and thermal analysis in metal science.

5. Magnetic Properties

Types of magnetism, their specific features. Dia- and paramagnetic metals, their position in the periodic table. Curie-Weiss law. Methods of measuring para- and diamagnetic susceptibility. Para- and diamagnetic properties of metal phases and heterogeneous alloys. Magnetic properties of ferromagnets. Magnetization curve and magnetic hysteresis cycle. Demagnetization factor. Methods of measuring ferromagnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetization. Nature of exchange interaction. Conditions for ferro- and anti-ferromagnetism. Exchange interaction in a- and f-metals. Ferromagnetism. Temperature dependence of saturation magnetization. Curie point. Magnetic crystallographic anisotropy energy. Magnetoelastic energy of ferromagnetism. Domain structure of ferromagnets. Technical magnetization processes. Single domain particles and their magnetization. Superparamagnetism phenomenon.

Magnetic properties of solid solutions, metal phases and heterogeneous alloys. Application of magnetic analysis for study of phase equilibrium diagrams, structural transformations caused by hardening and temper, for investigation of ordering processes, etc. Requirements for phase state and microstructure of soft-magnetic and hard-magnetic alloys.

6.   Electrical Properties. Heat Conductivity

Techniques of measuring electric properties. Physical nature of electriс conduction of metals. Temperature and pressure dependence of electrical resistance of pure metals. Influence of defects on electrical resistance of metals. Electrical resistance of ordered and disordered solid solutions. Concentration dependence of electrical resistance of solid solutions (Mattissen-Fleming rule). Inhomogeneous solid solutions (K-state). Electrical properties of chemical compounds and intermediate phases. Electrical properties of heterogeneous alloys.

Application of electrical analysis for phase equilibrium plotting, for study of hardening, steel temper, overcooled austenite decomposition, ordering. Principles of forming alloys for conductors and resistance elements.Technical materials with specific electrical properties.

Principles of measuring heat conductivity. The relationship between heat conductivity and electriс conduction.

7. Density and Thermal Expansion

Density of metals, metal phases, heterogeneous alloys. Density determination methods. Density changing due to deformation, allotropic transformations, melting and other types of modification. Compressibility of metals.

Thermal expansion of metals and alloys. Methods of evaluating thermal expansion and bulk transformation effect (dilatometry). Dilatometric studies of alloy transformations. Alloys with specified expansion factor (invar, cover, platinite, etc.).

8. Elastic Properties

Elasticity of metals and metal phases. Dependence of elastic modulus of solid solution on valence and concentration of dissolved metal. Ferromagnetic anomaly of elastic modulus.

Internal friction mechanism. Application of internal friction method in metal science.

9. Heat and Thermomechanical Treatment

Annealing. Isometric decomposition of austenite. Thermokinetic diagrams. Mechanism and kinetics of bainitic transformation. Structure and properties of transformation products.

Hardening. Martensite transformation. Thermodynamics, kinetics, morphology. Dependence of transformation temperature interval and transformation kinetics on composition of steel. Stabilization of autensite. Effect of plastic deformation on martensite transformation. Thermoelastic martensite. Shape memory effect. Hardening-induced heat and structural stress.

Temper. Temper-induced change of dislocation structure. Carbide transformation. Effect of tempering temperature on structure and properties of steel. Reversible and irreversible temper brittleness. Deformation aging.

Deformation. Effect of peening-induced structural changes on phase transformations, dependence on deformation temperature, degree and technique. Superplasticity. Schemes of thermomechanical ordering.

Plastic deformation resistance of metal alloys. Retardation of dislocations mechanisms.

Fracture strength. Brittle and plastic fracture. Fracture mechanics criteria. Influence of structure and fine structure of metal alloys on plastic deformation resistance and fracture strength.

Deformation of metals and alloys. Deformation ordering.Structural changes related to cold deformation of metal alloys. Heat-induced changes of structure and properties of cold-deformed alloys. Recovery. Polygonization. Recrystallization. Grain growth. Dislocation-impurity interaction. Dynamic deformation aging.

Superplasticity. Temperature dependence of stress-deformation curves. Dynamic recovery. Dynamic polygonization. Dynamic recrystallization.